Saturday, March 9, 2019

Partnership Law

The Law of unionsScott Osborne The applicable law confederation manage 1892 (NSW) The relevant law is contained in the Partnership Act (PA) of sever each(prenominal)y of the jurisdictions. both in only be based on the PA (1890) UK Act. The contr forgeual constitution of Partnerships Partnerships argon essenti tout ensembley letual. defining a Partnership s. 1 PA 1892 NSW The PA defines a league as the relation which exists in the midst of rough angiotensin-converting enzymes looking on a transmission line in habitual with a figure of cabbage Partnerships are unincorporated bodies without both separate legal identity of their sustain.As legal expert Barton put it in Cribb v Korn (1911), to be associates, they mustinessiness obligate rack up to carry on some note. in common with a view to making pro aspects and by and by onwardswards of dividing them, or of applying them to some concur object. SO.. whether a crabbed alliance is, in law, deemed a mar ried per watchwordship lead depend on the popies showing that it exhibits all common chord ELEMENTS that the PA 1892 require. They MUST show that they are 1 CARRYING ON A BUSINESS 2 IN COMMON 3WITH A VIEW TO PROFIT. Defining seam s. PA 1892 NSW In Hope v Bathhurst City Council (1980) jurist Ma parole defined the term care as activities undertaken as a mercenary endeavor in the nature of a going tinct for the purpose of make on a continuous and repetitive understructure. Difficulties shtup come up at common law whether a tell a contingent activity constitutes carrying on a business. It forgatherms to be a interrogatory of fact and degree, for example, Evans v FCT (1989) where Evans won $800k from gambling. FCT said he was carrying on a business for claiming tax from him.Held Evans had non been carrying on a business of kick as his activities lacked system and organization. nonwithstandingice Hill do the point that all indicia to be considered as a whole. Defining carrying on Seems to sozzled that there must be a degree of continuity all in fact or intention. Normally an isolated transaction pull up stakes not be carrying on a business as in Smith v Anderson (1880) where LJ Brett said carrying on implies a repitition of acts and excludes doing one act which is never repeated.The NSW Supreme hail used similar reasoning in Hitchins v Hitchins (1999) where Justice Bryson said it was characterized as an investment sooner than a trade and flow of transactions which could be thought of carrying on a business. BUT a P send packing be entered into for a single venture if that is what the parties intend as in Minter v Minter (2000) where court said Today, a single purpose phrase venture does not escape being a league IF separatewise it satisfies the criteria for a fusion in the sense of a commercial enterprise with the object of gain or pull ahead.SO.. while continuity/ repeating of operations whitethorn be a strong indication of carryin g on a business it is probably no doggeder a censorious consideration Chan v Zacharia (1984), Justice Deane. Contemplated Partnerships A mere cartel to carry on a business as helpers at some, ( veritable(a) specified), time in the future does not make the participants spouses UNTIL THAT TIME ARRIVES. If one of the intending furnishs starts the business other(a) without the consent of the others this will still not constitute a league.Engaging in merely preparatory activities will not constitute carrying on a business Pioneer Concrete Services v Galli (1985) BUT Everything will depend on whether the activities are really merely preparatory caravanserai v Miah (2000) Lord Millett said, they did not merely agree to take all over and run a restaurant they bear out to find suitable expound, fit them out as a restaurant and run it once they had cause it up. It was what they had relatetly agreed to do. Definition of in common There must be some joint participation in a com mon business Checker Taxicab Ltd v Stone (1930)A driver rented a taxi from the owner and paying him a % of the fares as commission was held non to be carrying on a business in common as no joint participation, no shared remediates or duties and each soul in reality carried on his own separate and distinct business. The in common requirement does NOT mean that all the so-called mates must take an active part in the business. The test seems to be Does the person who carries on the business do so as means for the persons alleged to be partners? Lang v James Morrison & Co Ltd (1911) Definition of with a view of profitMinter v Minter (2000) made die that a view to ultimate profit is essential in a fusion BUT noted that it has not been essential that there be a profit-making motive in the short term. This content that even though the partners are carrying on their business in the expectation that there could be losses INITIALLY the business will still be carried on with a v iew of profit IF the parties INTEND that it will ULTIMATELY earn profits. SO.. even where an enterprise does operate at a loss, the parties INITIAL determination will invariably yield been to run it at a profit (even if the intention was hopelessly optimistic N. B. Stekel v Ellice (1973) parties say intention may be overruled. How the contract of Partnership arises 1. semiformally by deed 2. much informally only if still in writing 3. by interchange of mouth arranging 4. partly written and partly oral 5. bunghole be implied from the conduct of the parties Because unions are essentially business contracts the law relating to their organisation etc is THE LAW OF CONTR act as. There is NO requirement that a WRITTEN sympathy to narrate parties intention to operate as partners BUT a formal Partnership sympathy has FOUR clear advantages such as 1. ritten placement will set out unequivocally who are partners 2. it will understandably detail each partners duties, adjusts a nd responsibilities 3. if a dispute arises the written agreement base be referred to or should prescribe some pre-agreed solution or means or arriving at the solution 4. the written agreement will leave the parties to make distil and undeniable provision for things that are not cover by the Partnership Act or which although provided for in the Act washstandbe alter by some express agreement to the opposite if the parties choose to do so. Relationship of Partners to Each otherThe relationship is both CONTRACTUAL and FIDUCIARY. 1. partners are not normally permitted to act except for the common good 2. their relationship is governed mainly by parties own agreement rather than Statute. The parties fiducial obligations are quash to their obligations under the Partnership Agreement Justice Mason in in sloshedary Products Ltd v United States Surgical Corp (1984) when he said the fiducial relationship cannot be superimposed upon the contract in such a way as to alter the operatio n which the contract was intended to arrive Duty to act for the common goodMust not carry on other business in competition with the coalition Lawfund Australia Pty Ltd v Lawfund Leasing Pty Ltd (2008) BUT If they go their fellow partners adepty informed consent they may retain the social welfare for themselves Farah Constructions Pty Ltd v Say-Dee Ltd (2007) Duration of the Duty Fiduciary duties, in some circumstances, can arise before the compact formally commences AND they will continue even by and by dissolution UNTIL the final directlys fall in been taken. Therefore the obligation not to pursue personal gain can both pre-date and, to a modified bound, survive the alliance itself as in United Dominions Corporation Ltd v Brian Pty Ltd (1985) UD and B were partners in a shopping bosom development start with a trio party SPL. UD was a major financier of the proletariat and SPL had granted it a mortgage over the make for. The mortgage unornamentedly secured not p rovided the borrowings for the shopping centre but to a fault borrowings for other projects in which Brian had no kindle whatsoever. The mortgage was granted before the shopping centre confederation had formally come into being but wellhead afterwards negotiations for it had commenced (and at a point when it was clear that B would accede).Notwithstanding this, neither UD or SPL told B of the mortgages collateralisation clause. When the shopping centre had been completed and interchange UD tried to retain all the proceeds of sale (including all the profit) to load SPLs indebtedness to it for the other loans. B objected. HELD A fiduciary job exists between prospective partners. As a fiduciary, UD had a positive business not to seek a private advantage without B prior(prenominal) go to sleepledge and consent. The aforesaid(prenominal) reasoning was applied to Battye v Shammall (2005) Both parties entered into an agreement to train and race three horses in partnership.The pl aintiff agreed to settle the defendant $25,000 for a half-share in the horses, not knowing that he had bought them for a total of $30,000. He and thus made a secret profit of $10,000. This profit had arisen as a direct result of the defendants break out of fiduciary duty and he was whence liable to tarradiddle for it to the plaintiffs. In wrong of surviving the partnership (until final settlement of the accounts) see Chan v Zacharia (1984) The parties were partners in a medical practice. They decided it in 1981.The premise was leased and the option to renew the lease had to be exercised by the doctors jointly. afterwards dissolution, but before final settlement of accounts, Dr Chan not only refused to join Dr Zacharia inexercising the option, he actively sought and gained a new lease of the premises in his own name alone. Because consulting rooms were difficult to obtain in the area and because the renewal was therefore a very valuable summation Dr Zacharia sued for a decl aration that Dr Chan held his interest under the new lease as constructive trustee for all members of the former partnership.HELD Because their fiduciary obligations continued after dissolution, at least as far as was needed to pull up the substantials affairs, Dr Chan had NOT been authorise to usurp for his own private profit an asset and luck which had properly belonged to the partnership as a whole. He was, therefore, required to account for that private profit. In damage of once the partnerships affairs have been completely harm up and final accounts have been taken Metlej v Kavanagh (1981) The parties had practiced as solicitors in a partnership.They had used rental premises and, when they collapsed their partnership, they agreed to continue bringing the premises together but to operate separate practices. Kavanagh later bought the premises and Metlej sued contention that he was entitled to participate and to buy a one-half interest in the property. HELD While Kavanagh would have been liable to account to Metlej for the opportunity during their partnership he was NOT LIABLE after its dissolution. The same reasoning was applied toSew light v Sew Hoy (2001) Bindingness of the Partnership Agreement s. 5 PA 1892 NSW + ss. 6-9 The Partnership Agreement is only binding on the partners themselves SO the terms in it do not normally have both center on the rights or entitlements of tierce parties doing business with the bulletproof. EG a Partnership Agreement states that every one partner can sign partnership draws UP TO $50,000 but cheques in overindulgence need to be counter signed by another partner That provision would have no effect on the rights of the erson who accepted the cheque for more than $50,000 bearing only integrity signature UNLESS he had been made aware of the restriction before accepting it. TWO KEY POINTS here(predicate) Restrictions in Partnership Agreements have this particular effect on third parties because of the bel iefs of 1. Privity of Contract 2. Ostensible (apparent) Authority Under the doctrine of Privity of Contract the terms of the Partnership Agreement (the contract) are only binding on and foot unless BE ENFORCED by the actual parties to that contract i. e. the partners.Under the doctrine of Ostensible (apparent) Authority third parties are entitled to assume that those who occupy positions that normally carry certain berth will have that ascendancy UNLESS there has been some express notification to the contrary. Each partner is the de jure agent of his fellow partners for the purpose of doing those things that are usual for carrying on the business of the partnership in the normal way therefore each partner has ostensible role to do everything that might be regarded as part of the workaday normal functioning of the business.THIS CONCEPT IS NOW ENCAPSULATED IN THE compact ACT (1892) NSW s. 5 BUT knowledge of the third parties IS relevant Construction plan (Aust) Pty Ltd v H exyl Pty Ltd (1985) Construction Engineering contracted to build houses for Tambel on land that Tambel appeared to own. Construction Engineering was not aware that Tambel was in partnership with Hexyl Pty Ltd. However, their partnership agreement specifically said Tambel was to negotiate and sign the mental synthesis contract as bushel principle (not as agent for Hexyl or the partnership) and that the partnerships legal interest in the property was not to arise until after he completion of the building. When a dispute arose almost remuneration Construction Engineering alleged that Tambel had entered into the contract on behalf of the partnership and therefore both Tambel AND Hexyl were liable. Held Hexly was not liable while partners can bind one another in contract Tambel had been EXPRESSLY PROHIBITED from entering into the building contract as the pixilateds agent. AND partners actions must be in spite of appearance the type of business carried on by firm Polkinghorne v Ho lland (1934)Thomas Holland and his son Harold and Louis Whitington were partners in a law firm. Claimant Florence Polkinghorne was one of Thomas Hollands long time clients but much of her business was attended to by his son Harold Holland. Harold advised Florence Polkinghorne to invest money in a Trust enthronement Company that he had formed (which he knew was little more than a shell). Harold later advised her to lend ? 1000 to another of his companies called Secretariat Ltd (which once more was little more than a shell).Finally, he persuaded her to become a handler of Secretariat Ltd and to guarantee an overdraft in exchange for a share of the profits. All investments failed Mrs Polkinghorne deep in thought(p) the ? 5000 that she invested plus ? 5475 for which she became liable under her guarantee. Harold disappeared Mrs Polkinghorne sued his father Thomas Holland and Louis Whitington alleging that as partners they were liable for her losses. They argued they were not liable be cause giving financial advice was not part of the habitual course of the business of the firm.Held Harolds partners were liable for the ? 5000 she had at sea in the investments BUT NOT LIABLE fir the ? 5475 she had lost by guaranteeing the overdraft. They were liable for the depression loss as providing advice WAS a normal part of the business of the firm. They were not liable for the losses on the guarantee as this had NOT INVOLVED HAROLD ACTING IN HIS PROFESSIONAL CAPACITY wherefore NOT IN THE ORDINARY COURSE OF THE BUSINESS OF THE FIRM. BUT partners actions will be looked at indispensablely AND objectively when courts mold whether the other partners are liableThere are two limbs 1. The subjective test is what kinds of business does this firm actually carry on (and then look at any actions taken by a partner that were not actually authorized) 2. The objective test is what kinds of business do other firms actually carry on in the same line of business (a sort of reasonabl e expectation point) It seems that the courts have favoured this approach as in mercantile Credit Co Ltd v Garrod (1962) Garrod and Parkin operated a garage in partnership. Parkin ran the business.Garrod was a sleeping partner with no interest in the firms day to day running. Their agreement specified that buying and merchandising cars was NOT to be part of the firms activities. In breach of their agreement and without post from Garrod Parkin fraudulently sold a car to Mercantile Credit who discovered the fraud and sued for the return of its ? 700 purchase price. Garrod denied financial obligation arguing that Parkin had had no actual or ostensible countenance as interchange cars was not business of the kind carried out by the firm. Held Garrod WAS liable. nonetheless though what Parkin had done had been without Garrods authority (thereby eliminating any liability under the first limb it was AN ACT WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE FIRMS BUSINESS. Therefore, Parkin had had the necessary OSTENSIBLE AUTHORITY and both partners were liable under the second limb. Justice Mocatta looked at the type of business that could be expected in garages generally. retentiveness Out as Partners s. 6(1) PA 1892 NSW Authority of those held out as partners Even non-partners can bind the firm if the firm or some of its members hold them out as partners (this is part of the Doctrine of Ostensible Authority).By representing that a particular person is a partner, the partnership is effectively saying, either to the world or to an individual that the person has all the sources of a partner and that he has authority to bind the firm. If someone then deals with that person (in the belief that they are a partner) the firm may not disassociate itself from liability just because that person was not, in fact, a partner. By representing that that person was a partner the firm becomes liable for any actions which it would have been reasonable for him to have taken as a partner s. 6(1) PA 1892 N SW. financial obligation of those held out as Partners s. 4 (1) PA 1892 NSW Third parties deceived by a holding out can therefore sue not only the real partners but also all those who were held out, exactly as if they had been real partners, provided they had at least acquiesced in the holding out. Estoppel Those who allow themselves to be held out as partners, knowing or suspecting that this might induce third parties to alter their position in reliance on that representation, will be estopped from denying the fact of partnership if the denial is to parry liability to those third parties as in Waugh v Carver (1793) obligation in General Liability of general partnersA general partners liability is il arrangeable liable to the full extent of their personal resources for partnership debts and obligations. If called upon they can ONLY seek a component from the other general partners. Their rights against the limited partners are certified to the limited partners agreed contribu tion. A general partner CAN change status to become a limited partner SO LONG AS there is still at least ONE GENERAL PARTNER left. Liability of limited partners Only liable for the firms debts and obligations to the extent of his contribution or agreed contribution to the firms upper-case letter ss. 0, 61 and 65(2) PA 1892 NSW. In NSW they can either be in cash or property valued at a stated amount. (In QLD those contributions must be in cash). THIS LIMITED LIABILITY ONLY RELATES TO LIABILITIES THE PARTNERSHIP OWES THIRD PARTIES. THE LIABILITY TO THE OTHER PARTNERS IS GOVERNED BY THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT AND THE germane(predicate) PARTNERSHIP ACTS. Losing Limited Liability Can and will be lost 1. if there are defects in the Partnership Agreement 2. if the limited partners participate in management 3. if a limited partners contribution to capital is withdrawn 4. if the partnership ceases to be a limited partnership . if there is a failure to describe the partnership as a Limited Partnership in business instruments Key point about limited partnerships They must be registered s. 50 PA 1892 NSW Terminating a Partnership Can be dissolved in any number of ways. They may terminate their relationship 1. by agreement 2. or if they have provided for it in their original Partnership Agreement one partner may entirely give notice of termination 3. court intervention (in the event of relationship breakdown. Remember. because partnerships are contractual relationships any change in the part of the partnership (i. e. ny change in the parties) will technically terminate it Rushton (Qld) Pty Ltd v Rushton (NSW) Pty Ltd (2003). If some or all of the remaining partners want to continue after a change they can provided there is both an appropriate agreement and some arrangement to pay out those partners who are leaving. N. B. any subsequence will involve a new partnership the old partnership will have terminated when the change took place. Therefore at its terminal take aim termination will occur whenever there is any free (or involuntary) change in the composition of the partnership whether or not the busiess continues after the change.Such changes include changes initiated by 1. the wipeout of a partner 2. the expulsion of a partner 3. the retirement of a partner or 4. the introduction of a new partner prodigality and crook Up At its severest level termination can involve a formal dissolution of the partnership followed by a winding up of the partnerships affairs. Winding up means that the partnerships assets are sold, its debts are nonrecreational and any residue that remains is then split among the (now former) partners in accordance of rights with either the terms of their Partnership Agreement or the provisions in the Partnership Act s. 4 PA 1892 NSW. Difference between Dissolution and Winding Up Critical difference between dissolution and accompanying winding up is described in Rushton (Qld) Pty Ltd v Rushton (NSW) Pty Ltd (2003 ) . Death of a Partner s. 33(1) PA 1892 NSW The PA 1892 NSW provides that subject to any agreement between the partners, every partnership is dissolved as regards all the partners by the death of any partner SO. in the absence of a contrary agreement, the death of any partner must semiautomatically bring the partnership to an end.The firms business may then be formally wound up, its assets and under fetching may be sold, its debts will be paid and any balance will be distributed between the deceaseds estate and the surviving partners in accordance with either the terms of the partnership agreement or, if there are no specific terms, the provisions of the Act. wherefore automatic dissolution? It is designed to protect the deceaseds interest in the partnership. N. B. The Partnership Agreement can stipulate by agreement that the death of a partner is not to result in automatic dissolution.Expulsion of a Partner s. 25 PA 1892 NSW s. 25 PA 1892 NSW provides that no majority of the part ners can expel any partner unless a world power to do so has been conferred by express agreement between the partners The express agreement referred to, while it need not be in writing, should be part of the original Partnership Agreement. Partners have no inherent right to expel co-partners. It is not enough that all the partners get together and agree agree to put a power of expulsion into their agreement just to get rid of the disfavoured partner.The normal way of resolving irreconcilable differences is to dissolve and wind up the partnership. There are a number of fiduciary safeguards which include 1. the expulsion must be exercised in good credence and it must not be improperly motivated 2. any power to expel a partner will be strictly construed but 3. unless the Partnership Agreement expressly or impliedly provides for it, a partner being expelled need not generally be told the reason for the proposed expulsion nor given over an opportunity to speak in his defence. How the g ood faith requirement operates is well illustrated inBlisset v Daniel (1853) where a power of expulsion exists it must be used for the eudaimonia of the partnership as a whole and not for the benefit of particular partners. Retirement of a Partner s. 26 PA 1892 NSW The effect of one partner retiring (as with death or explulsion) is to dissolve the partnership in its then form. This is the case even so the business of the firm may continue Hadlee v Commissioner of Inland Revernue (1989). The practical effect raises some sort of indebtedness between all or some of the continuing partners (those who are buying out the retiring partner).The retiring partner loses all rights to have any continuing say in how the business is run. If the firm is going to continue as a new firm after the partner has retired they may well incur an obligation to pay the retiring partner against any action by the firms creditors after the effective date of his retirement. This will be important to the retir ing partner because under the PA NSW he remains liable for all debts and obligations of the partnership before the effective date of retirement unless the remaining partners and the firms creditors agree otherwise s. 7(3) PA 1892 NSW. The Introduction of a naked Partner s. 24 (1)(7) PA 1892 NSW s. 24 (1)(7) PA 1892 NSW provides that no person may be introduced as a partner without the consent of all existing partners This provision follows naturally from the fact that partners have an unlimited liability for partnership debts and obligations and therefore there is a mutual trust, confidence, understanding and good will presumed to exist. Incorporated Limited Partnerships s. 49 PA 1892 NSW defines them as an incorporated limited partnership formed in accordance with the Act NOT precise HELPFULBetter defined as, an association of persons carrying on business as partners where the liability of at least one of them is limited and the funds and business are managed by one or more ge neral partners for the benefit of all the partners collectively s. 995-1(1) Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (Cth). SOthese partnerships have a corporate identity, a separate legal personality and never-ending succession. ONLY the limited partners are protected though unlike all limited liability companies Therefore the general partners remain liable without limitWhy have an Incorporated Limited Partnership? (ILP) ILPs were the direct result of the Commonwealth Governments Venture Capital Act 2002 (Cth) to facilitate non-resident investment in Australia. The Act provides concessional tax relief This is restricted to those involved in venture capital investments AND REGISTERED under the Act. Limited Liability Issues Normal (unincorporated) limited liability partnerships do not provide VC with the evidence of limited liability as they are NOT incorporated and have no independent legal status. Formation of an ILPThey MUST be REGISTERED in NSW the Registrar of Business Names. How to Register s. 54 PA 1892 NSW Must await an application with above signed by existing or proposed partners enlarge 1. that the partnership is to be registered as an ILP 2. the firms name, address and principle office 3. full name and address of each partner 4. status of each partner i. e. general partner or limited partner 5. for registered VCLP either evidence of registration or a statement outlining the intent 6. anything else prescribed as required, under regulation or otherwiseOnce REGISTERED an ILP is in most cases will be subject to the rules of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) regarding matters such as directors duties and the prohibition of disqualified persons taking part in management. Assumptions those dealing with an ILP are entitled to make The PA 1892 NSW provides a number of assumptions that those who deal with an ILP are entitled to make (UNLESS they know or suspect that the assumption is incorrect ) These assumptions are 1. the Partnership Agreement has been complied with 2. anyone on Register as a general partner has authority to perform duties 3. nyone held out as a general partner in, or as agent of, an ILP is a generalpartner and has such powers/authority 4. the general partners, and agents of, an ILP properly perform their duties to the ILP 5. that a document executed by an ILP has been duly executed 6. that a general partner in an ILP who has authority to issue a document on its behalf has authority to warrant that the document is genuine or a true copy. How are ILPs set? Not governed by the general partnership rules Most important perchance is when it comes to joint/several liability.Partnership Act NSW provides that general law of partnership does NOT apply to ILPs OR to the relationship between the ILP and its partners s. 1(C) PA 1892 NSW. Partnerships & Companies chiefly The reason for the distinction between P and C is quite simple. A P is an ASSOCIATION of persons ACTUALLY carrying on a business. together the partners decide wha t business will be carried on, they are usually entitled to get involved in the day-to-day operations and they are personally liable for the partnerships debts and obligations. With C this is not the case.C are indie LEGAL ENTITIES WITH A PERPETUAL EXISTENCE. They obtain their funds from shareholders who are generally, both in fact and in law, passive investors. The difference between P and C can be very important even in small closely held companies where the directors are also the companys sole shareholders and operate like a P the legal position is that they are not a P and therefore have NO right to be treated as such by the law. This can have very unfortunate circumstancesas in Friend v Brooker (2009) The parties incorporated a company and they were equal shareholders.Brooker borrowed funds personally to help the business. The C later went into liquidation and there was not enough money to repay the loan. Brooker claimed that the C had merely been a corporate vehicle for a P between the two men and therefore P law should apply. Held Brookers action failed. Court said he and Friend had taken a deliberate commercial decision to adopt a corporate structure for their business rather of operating as a partnership therefore no fiduciary duty owed. Advantages of Partnerships Simple and cheap to set up Can be simple and cheap to dismantle ConfidentialityParticipation in management and decision-making Flexibility Partners owe a fiduciary duty to one another Can be used to reward and retained skilled/valued staff Disadvantages of Partnerships get to no separate legal existence Continuity problems Limited come Capital may be more difficult to raise straight-out liability Statutory Agency Partnership interests are not freely transferable Some Partnership decisions require unanimity Partnership In Tort PA 1892 NSW ss. 10-13 The basic provision concerning the way in which tortious (and criminal) wrongs perpetrate by a partner are to be treated reads as follows where by any wrongful act or omission of any partner. acting in the ordinary course of the business of the firm, or with the authority of the partners co-partners, loss or crack is caused to any person not being a partner of the firm, or any penalty is incurred, the firm is liable therefore to the same extent as the partner so acting or omitting to act. Therefore, all partners will be collectively liable but that is not all. The PA 1892 NSW makes clear that partners liability is both joint and several s. 12 PA 1892 NSW therefore the hurt party can sue the whole firm OR partners that he chooses.If he sues only some of the partners THEY WILL BE personally LIABLE (they will also be entitled to seek a contribution from the other partners). If recovery in full cannot be obtained from the sued partners by the injured party they may later sue partners who were not sued for the famine Breaches of Contract the partners are simply jointly liable for the firms debts and obligations so the injured party generally only gets one opportunity to sue collectively Kendall v Hamilton (1879) partners are jointly liable for partnership debts.To succeed the injured party must prove FIVE things 1 . there was a wrongful act or omission 2. it was move by a partner 3. partner was acting in ordinary course of firms business or with actual or implied or apparent authority of his co-partners National Commercial Banking Corp of Australia Ltd v Batty (1986) 4. injured party suffered loss or injury 5. loss or injury resulted from the wrongful act or omission. Also see Polkinghore v Holland (1934) encounter ABOVE FOR FACTS AND DECISION

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