Sunday, March 31, 2019
Effects Of Improper Waste Management Environmental Sciences Essay
Effects Of Improper take Management Environmental Sciences testThe issue of Waste Management has be an ongoing issue in Nigeria but came into lime light in 1988 with the giving medication of ototoxic hook in the then Delta State (Edo state). Nigeria as the most populous bucolic in Africa has an estimated population size of ab knocked protrude(p) 160 million raft, a growth rate of 2.37% and generates an yearly municipal dispel figure of 25,000,000 tones. This policy sets to identify the probable sources of drive hit extension, their personal effects, and disposal methodology and thereafter commend mitigation strategy for Waste Management by proffering probable solvent to its way by way ofIts Pr fifty-fiftytion,Its Reduction,Its Beneficial usage through the 3Rs of drop caution andDevelopment of Statutory, legal and legislative regulations for the palmment of ball up.Although there be federal official and State Ministry of Environment, Environmental Protection wa y of life (State and Federal), we still cede problems about enforcement of the responsibilities for regulation and monitoring to ensure legal, statutory and social compliance.landed estate PROFILEThe Nigerian economy is one that has experienced a get a broad of purlieual problems in its over fifty (50) years of being an self-employed person nation. There appargonntly seem to be no end in sight except a few radical changes are do to its economical and environmental policies. The run through precaution system in devise in Nigeria leaves a lot to be desired.The countrys current environmental issues intromit but are non limited toOil pollution and feature flaring (which affect water system, aquatic lives, air, and unravel to loss of arable land),Waste pollution (which causes air, land and water pollution),Rapid urbanisation.A think at nine (9) of the major cities in Nigeria gives a comme il fautly good melodic theme of the disaster the country is looking at in terms of ungoverned idle multiplication and management.The Map below shows severally of the nine (9) states with their generated annual municipal wasteOne would expect that a country of much(prenominal) magnitude both in population size and economic grandness result have structures in place to adequately combat the venture posed by waste generation and management but this is not the case as the country doesnt have a single salutary landfill for waste disposal. It disposes waste in open landfills and dumps.SOURCES OF WASTE GENERATIONThe environment is a continuously changing one and the quantity of waste generated growths with an make up in population, peoples attitudes and rapid urbanization. In providing a solution and putting in place a policy to manage waste in the Nigerian economy a clear understanding of what waste is and how it is generated is required.What is waste?The coupled Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) defines waste as materials that are not prime carrefours (tha t is products produced for the market) for which the reference has no further use in terms of his/her make purposes of production, vicissitude or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose.Waste is generated fromResidential waste household waste and kitchen wasteCommercial waste office waste e.g. papersinstitutional waste papersMunicipal waste sludge and general wasteProcess waste scraps untaught waste pesticidesConstruction waste wood, Concrete etcDrilling Oil spillage, gas flaring, coal, ashTypes of waste (Diagram) effect OF IMPROPER WASTE MANAGEMENTIt is a well known indicate that our environment is poorly protected and not many Nigerians know the genuine scope and the ramifications of this problem.What is Waste Management?Waste management is the act of collection, computer memory and disposal of waste to pr even upt pollution, degradation of the environment. This ranges from ordinary household, industrial wastes even generated by factories and nuclear power plants. Proliferation of vermin Dirt has been known to be the breeding fuzes for vermin akin rodents, mosquitoes and microbesWater pollution This occurs mainly when plant water is contaminated from oil spillage and washed off chemicals that enter the ground. This has an adverse effect on marine life, drinking water and deforestation occurs because plants get contaminated water into their roots.Air pollution This occurs when waste is incinerated indiscriminately in public without the proper facilities being utilise and even dumped in the open. The incinerated waste especially plastic release toxins that could produce vinegarish precipitate and the smoke could cause lung damage.Land pollution This occurs when waste is not deposited at proper disposal sites but is dumped in open landfills. This causes a blot on the landscape and a reducing in situation price where such landfills are found.Public Health Issues The unregulated dispose of waste which gives room for microbes and insect to breed creates health issues such as malaria (mosquitoes), typhoid (contaminated home water source) etc.Reduction in Agricultural production waste especially oil spillage, gas flaring, chemical contaminants bring down the timbre of the soil and this in sophisticate is noticed in the reduction of unpolished produceMethane production which if not treated properly causes jet plane house effect and add to ozone depletion (unmanaged waste smells and generates the gas)Climate change leads to an increase in the intensity and frequency of weather extremes, such as love waves, floods, droughts and tropical cyclones. The people hardest hit by climate change and environmental degradation are those living in the most vulnerable areas such as coastal communities and Delta Regions in Nigeria. This climate change and the effects it generates lead to property damage, business interruption, forest fires and health risks.Flooding This occurs when waste is attached in drainages by man or by nat ural event (washed by rain).This could causes flooding when rain falls.Erosion The presence of chemical and toxic waste in the soil reduces its compatibility and causes soil wash off when rain falls.PROBLEMSThe problem of inadequate waste disposal and management practice in Nigeria is based on a few controllable factors that are highlighted asEnlightenment Nigerias citizens lack the general awareness of worlds best(p) practices for waste disposal, management and the possible effects of non-compliance on their health.Meager funding The funds allocated to each state for waste management is inadequate to battle the issues of environmental waste. States homogeneous Lagos have only 5-7% of the states allocation to battle waste management.Obsolete engineering and inadequate equipment The people who have been given the job of waste disposal and management do not have the equipments and technology to do the job. rawness of staff The staff who have been allocated to manage waste disposal and management do not have the technical knowhow to go about doing the job. unelaborated policy to combat improper waste disposal The policies on ground have not been improved to meet the changing population size, urbanization and worlds best practice. healthful Landfills Nigeria as a country doesnt have a single salutary landfill to its name. It uses open landfills and dumpsites for its waste disposal which is not hearty and environmentally friendly.Traffic This situation is more prominent in urban cities where the distance between the point of collection of waste and the disposal point could take a whole day to cover because of traffic congestionLegislature instrumentation Nigeria has the uniqueness of making laws without having the legal presence to implement them and has cascaded to the waste management sector.Government Legislation In situations where there are environmental laws in place, the fines attributed to breaking the laws are not a fair representation of the offenc e committed.eg Environmental Sanitation Edict NO12.1985 stipulated a fine of two (200 ) naira or two( 2) months in prison for going out on sanitation days.GOVERNMENTS EFFORT SO FARIt is accepted that the Nigerian government has put in place several environmental bodies to cut back the increasing environmental issues caused by waste generation.Such bodies includeFederal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) was established on 30th December, 1988 by the Federal Government to secure a quality environment for Nigerians.theme Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) was established in 1999 to enforce environmental laws. It was established as a subset of FEPA.Each state in Nigeria has its own Environmental Protection Agency e.g.Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA)State Ministry of EnvironmentNational Oil Spill Detection and receipt Agency (NOSDRA)ADVISED SOLUTIONS (RECOMMENDATIONS)GOVERNMENT TECHNICAL SOLUTION.The technical solutions recommende d for government sycophancy arePrevention of wasteThis technique ordain include practices like increasing the shelf life of a product (increasing product warranty) by citizens in their everyday life.Waste Generation Reduction.The key to achieving waste generation reduction is for the government to create awareness. Educate people on the effects of waste generation on the economy, the environment and themselves and to advise them on waste generation reduction techniques of shopping. This technique says thatPeople should only purchase what they look at (necessities and essentials)People should purchase reusable products and goodsPeople should buy products with little casePeople should buy recyclable productsCompostingThe government should set up waste compositing sites at strategic parts of the country. Compositing involves the use of anaerobic bacteria at high temperature and in the presence of Oxygen to digest and breakdown biodegradable waste into distinguishable components th at are harmless to the environment and the end product can be used as fertilizers by farmers.RecycleThe Nigerian government has no recycle department or unit in its environmental influence and also has no recycling plant. The key to recycling is in educating people on the different classes of waste and the different means of disposal and separation. The process of recycling involves the reprocessing of waste to produce a different or new product. This process should involved both the government and the peopleIncinerationWith the reduction of the water content in generated waste, incineration can be carried out in an enclosed space under certain conditions to generate modify and energy that can be used to generate electricity. The government should look at this option as some other means for energy generation as with the population size in the country the waste generated ordain be put to better use. This can only be achieved if citizens work up the practice of classifying waste into general waste, recyclable waste and reusable waste.Sanitary landfillNigeria as a country doesnt have a single sanitary landfill. A sanitary landfill is usually used for the final waste that cannot be reused, recycled or composited. The ground is dug and lined to prevent the contamination of ground water and the waste is packed and lined then covered with shite to reduce its smell and to stop animals from digging it up. The sanitary landfill site should be located far from residential areas. The government should look at make a few sanitary landfills in key areas in the countryGOVERNMENT GENERAL SOLUTIONSet up awareness defend to educate people on the worlds waste disposal and management best practicesProvide technical knowhow and training programmers to environmental waste management agency employeesCompanies and the type of waste they generate should be registered with the government so as to enable the government put facilities on ground to dispose and manage the waste.Di fferent types of waste should have different disposable sites.The disposal and management responsibility of waste should be cascaded down.The government should get private investors who bequeath assist them in managing the generated wasteEncourage the generation of a schoolmaster body for waste disposal and managementEnsure that there is right for any waste disposal issue that might arise in the country.Ensure waste policys are implementedEnsure that physical, informative and pecuniary facilities are put on ground to adequately combat environmental waste disposal and management.Creation of an adequate legal frame work to try offenders of waste management laws will go a long way in.Finance research into waste reduction and waste enjoyment techniqueECONOMIC BENEFITS OF RECOMMENDATIONSMethane The methane generated from fermentation if managed properly can be used as cooking fuel.This the government can add as another source of cooking fuel instead of kerosene and firewoodRe cyclin gStops floodingIncineration Heat and Energy generated through this process will be used in electricity generation which in turn reduces our reliance on hydrolic electricity generationCompositing This is a source of fertilizer to farmers that is environmental friendlyAgriculture The improvement in soil quality will lead to a corresponding increase in agricultural produce which if exported is a source of foreign currency.Reduces erosion The increase in comportment of the soil will reduces the probability of erosion occurring with rainfall unafraid ground water and aquatic life survival This will suffer clean water for human consumption and plant growth bouncing populace With the advent of a sustainable environment the countrys population will be healthy and free of waste and water borne diseases.