Tuesday, March 12, 2019
Ancient history Essay
Lebanon French Republique libanaise), is a country on the east shore of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east, and Israel to the south. Lebanons kettle of fish at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland has impose its rich history, and shaped a cultural identity of religious and pagan diversity.8 The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than 7,000 eldpredating recorded history. 9 Lebanon was the home of the Phoenicians, a maritime culture that flourished for n archaeozoic 2,500 historic terminus (3000539 BC). Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World fight I, the five provinces that comprise modern Lebanon were mandated to France. The French expanded the borders of Mount Lebanon, which was loosely populated by Maronite Catholics and Druze, to include more Muslims.Lebanon gained indep end upence in 1943, and constituted a unique political system, cognise as confessionalism, a power-sharing tool based on religious communities. French troops withdrew in 1946. forward the Lebanese Civil War (19751990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, and banking. 10 Because of its financial power and diversity, Lebanon was known in its heyday as the Switzerland of the East. 11 It attracted large numbers of tourists,12 much(prenominal) that the capital Beirut was referred to as Paris of the Middle East. At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild areaal infrastructure. 13 Until July 2006, Lebanon enjoyed coarse stability, Beiruts reconstruction was almost complete,14 and increasing numbers of tourists poured into the nations resorts. 12 Then, the month-long 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah caused significant civilian oddment and heavy damage to Lebanons civil infrastructure. However, due to its tightly correct financial system, Lebanese banks have largely a voided the financial crisis of 20072010.In 2009, notwithstanding a global recession, Lebanon enjoyed 9% economic growth and hosted the largest number of tourists in its history. Etymology The name Lebanon comes from the Semitic root lbn, meaning white, likely a reference to the snow-capped Mount Lebanon. 15 Occurrences of the name have been found in texts from the library of Ebla,16 which date to the third millennium BC, nearly 70 clock in the Hebrew Bible, and three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh (perhaps as early as 2100 BC)17. The name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. 18Ancient history Main article History of antique Lebanon Evidence of the earliest known settlements in Lebanon was found in Byblos, which is considered to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world,9 and date back to in the beginning than 5000 BC. Archaeologists disc all overed remnants of prehistoric huts with crushed limestone floors, primitive weapons, and burial jars left by the Neolithic and Chalcolithic fishing communities who lived on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea over 7,000 years ago. 19Lebanon was the homeland of the Phoenicians, a seafaring people that spread crossways the Mediterranean before the rise of Cyrus the Great. 20 After two centuries of Persian rule, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great attacked and burned Tyre, the most prominent Phoenician city. Throughout the subsequent centuries leading up to recent times, the country became secernate of numerous succeeding empires, among them Persian, Assyrian, Hellenistic, Roman, Eastern Roman, Arab, Seljuk, Mamluk, Crusader, and the Ottoman Empire.