Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Sigmund Freud Essay Example for Free

Sigmund Freud EssayConsequently, Watson proposed that psychologist should put in themselves to studying behaviour, since only this was measurable by more than one person. For Watson the only way psychology could be eat upn seriously was to emulate the natural sciences and become objective. Watsons form of psychology was known as behaviourism. In 1913, Watson was working in the field of animal psychology and thought that the term animals could include humans. Watson was not raise in the mental processes. He saw no role for the mind and consciousness. Watson thought behaviour was observable and therefore scientific.The mind and its thought processes were abstract and unobservable and therefore unscientific. Behaviourism was defined by Watson as the study of the association between a stimulus and a retort. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian physiologist studying the digestion of dogs, when he found that the science lab dogs could be conditioned to salivate without food. Th is learnt behaviour was called clear teach. Behaviourism began with the study of animals and experiments were pickings over from simply watching them in their natural environment.Thorndike (1911) was interested in human behaviour although he used animals for his experiments for ethical reasons. Thorndike used a puzzle rap with a complicated set of pegs and pulleys and watched as the animals attempted to escape. Eventually though running and error, the animal would manage to open the door and it was rewarded with food. So escaping from the box had become desirable. The animal would then be placed in the box again and after several(prenominal) repetitions the animal preformed the necessary response to open the door more quickly. Thorndike argued that the animal had learnt how to escape be crap of the reward.Thorndike called this the law of motion. If we equivalent the consequences of our actions then the actions be likely to be repeated. This kind of learning was known as opera nt conditioning and was studied in more detail by B. F Skinner (1874-1949) Skinner reiterated Thorndikes law of effect in his experiments with rats. Skinners approach to psychology was scientific. His views came from Darwins theories of evolution. Skinner focused on the environment as a cause for human behaviour. He did not think people acted for moral reasons he thought they reacted in response to their environment.A person might do a good thing not for moral reasons, hardly for the rewards received for the act. For Skinner the mental process is irrelevant. There is a key difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves in voluntary or innate behaviour such as salivating and fear responses. They can be elicited, which means you can do something that produces an involuntary response. Operant conditioning involves voluntary behaviours. Voluntary behaviours are those behaviours that cannot be made to happen.This means that you canno t get these behaviours until someone carries them out. Watson did a study in 1920 and it is a widely used example of how we learn. Albert was conditioned to show a fear response to rats that he initially liked and showed no fear. Watson used a hammer struck on a surface measure to make a loud noise. Albert showed a natural fear response to the loud noise. (Unconditional response) The bar was struck while Albert petted the rat. Eventually, Albert associated the loud noise with the rat and showed the fear response upon seeing the rat.(Conditional response) Watson claimed that emotional responses are learnt through conditioning. He concluded that environment shapes our personality and genetics play no part in our behaviour characteristics. There are ethical criticisms of the little Albert study, however the main criticism be to be that when the data was examined it showed that it was quite difficult to condition Albert and the fear did not last long. They had to repeat the pairing a good deal to strengthen the association between the loud noise and the rat.Although, the study advises that it was easy to condition Albert, the data suggest that it was not that easy and not that clear cut. Social learning theory assumes that personality differences result from differences in the learning experiences. This includes learning from observing others in addition to operant and classical conditioning. For example in expression acquisition, a child learns to talk by imitating the openhandeds. For social learning to occur, one individual must take away a sweet behaviour from another individual (the model) with no reinforcement required.For example, monkeys in the wild are afraid of snakes and display this fear with screeching and jumping up and down. Captive monkeys reared in a laboratory do not have this fear. Mineka and Cook (1988) studied how rhesus monkeys can learn this response. When lab reared monkeys sight the agitated behaviour of wild monkeys in response to a snake, they modified their behaviour to match the model. The monkeys seem to have learnt to display fear by watching the behaviour of other individuals. Bandura, Ross and Ross, (1961) set out to analyse whether children learnt, through observation to display aggression.Children aged between 3 and 6 years of age were disconnected into two groups. One group were exposed to a non-aggressive adult model. The other group were exposed to an adult model behaving aggressively, both physically and verbally to a blow up Bobo shuttlecock. The model punched, kicked and hit the doll with a mallet while the children observed this behaviour. The children were then taken to a room containing non-aggressive toys such as crayons, cars, a farm set and aggressive toys such as a dart gun a mallet and a Bobo doll.The children imitated the model with verbal and physical aggressive behaviour towards the Bobo doll. The findings demonstrated that observation and artificial could account for the lear ning of specific acts without reinforcement. Classical conditioning can justify some of the aspects of human behaviour, curiously natural fear responses. Taste aversion, phobias and Gulf War Syndrome can be explained this way. Classical conditioning has a wide range of applications in behaviour therapy and has been successful in treating phobias.However, it cannot explain the attainment of entirely new behaviours and it cannot explain all of human learning especially the diversity of human personality and characteristics. It does not take into account that humans are capable of insight learning and the results are achieved through reasoning, with no trial and error are present. Operant Conditioning can explain how children learn the sounds of words from adults. Nevertheless, it does not explain how children correct grammar, as parents do not reinforce grammar (Slobin 1975)BibliographyBrain C. (2000) Approaches and Methods. Nelson and Thornes Ltd. UKJarvis M. (et el) (2000) Angles on Psychology. Stanley and Thornes Ltd. UKAtkinson R.L. (et el) An Introduction to Psychology. (1981) Harcourt Brace College Publishers. regular army(Word count 2052)Beverley FieldenAccess Psychology

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